Intellectual Outputs – Web version

Module 1: Models, methods and knowledge of care

(Keywords: person-centred approach; human-centred care; gentle care; validation; individualised care)

Target group:

  • Professional caregivers (initial training for students and in-service training)
  • Professional carers with no previous training in caregiving, mostly migrant (initial training and in-service training)
  • Family carers (initial training and in-service training)
  • Volunteers (initial training and in-service training)

Trainers (skills/profile):

geriatrician, gerontologist, psychologist, social worker, sociologist and pedagogue trained in the person-centred approach, gentle care and good treatment.

Purposes and goals (knowledge, skills, attitudes):

Purpose 1: To know the different models and methods based on person centred care

Specific Objectives

  • to know the principles and methods of the person-centred approach
  • to know the principles and methods of “bientraitance”
  • to know the principles and methods of “gentle care”

Purpose 2: To understand the normal and pathological characteristics of the aging process.

Specific Objectives

  • to know how to differentiate between the major cognitive-behavioural syndromes

Purpose 3: To reflect on the professional experience of care, the relationship of care and care at home in the light of the models and methods proposed.

Specific Objectives

  • to interpret the problematic behaviours of the cared-for person and translating them into needs

Purpose 4: To adopt a person centred relational approach, in a multidimensional perspective, including all basic needs.

Specific Objectives

  • to observe the person as a whole, recognising their potential, preferences and interests
  • to know how to deal with specific life issues

Contents :

  • The representations of old age and the elderly in our society (the myths of old age)
  • The evolution of “care”: historical perspective and social representations
  • Approaches to the care relationship
    • The person-centred approach: issues and implications
    • The “bientraitance”: issues and implications
    • Gentle care: issues and implications
    • Validation: issues and implications

the following content should be selected according to the needs of the learners

The normal and pathological aging process

  • Cognitive and psychic aging.
  • Normal and pathological aging.
  • Successful aging.
  • The evolution of aging in the future.
  • Sociological and demographic data.

The consequences of aging

  • The fragility of the elderly.
  • The characteristics of the older person’s illnesses.
  • The expression of symptoms specific to older people.
  • The geriatric patient: reserve and adaptation.
  • Functional autonomy and its importance.

The major cognitive behavioural syndromes

  • Neuro-degenerative syndromes.
  • Cognitive and associated behavioural disorders.
  • The organisation of daily care and support.
  • Confusional syndrome: care interventions and reassuring attitudes.
  • The depressive syndrome and the suicidal risk: their particularities in the elderly.

Specific life issues

  • The notions of consent and assent.
  • Rights and freedoms, the trusted person, advance directives.
  • Sexuality.

The grieving process, death.

Description of the training activity (methods, tools, timing, spaces):

Case studies in small and large groups.
Active pedagogy based on a given problem in small groups.
Tools: multimedia support (tools for collective writing, tools for presenting content)

Recommended number of participants: 25 max
Recommended duration: min 4- max 16 hours
Spaces: room equipped with video projector and movable chairs/online platform for online training.

Methodological suggestions for assessment (tools for initial, intermediate and final assessment if applicable):

Diagnostic assessment :

  • Brain storming

Formative evaluation :

  • Observation of group activities
  • Discussion

Final assessment (of learning) :

  • Questionnaire/test on theoretical elements
  • Case study for the application of the theory
  • Assessment questionnaire after 3 months


References in English: a proposal

Background references

  • Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful ageing: The model of selective optimization with compensation.
  • Fazio, Sam, PhD, Douglas Pace, NHA, Janice Flinner, MS, Beth Kallmyer, MSW, The Fundamentals of Person-Centered Care for Individuals With Dementia, The Gerontologist, Volume 58, Issue suppl_1, February 2018, Pages S10–S19,
  • Feil, N. (1989). Validation: An empathic approach to the care of dementia. Clinical Gerontologist: The Journal of Aging and Mental Health, 8(3), 89–94.
  • Feil, N. Resolution: The Final Life Task. Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 1985;25(2):91-105. https://doi:10.1177/0022167885252009
  • Havighurst, R.J. (1961). Successful Aging, The Gerontologist, 1 (1), 8–13,
  • Jones, M. (1999). Gentlecare: Changing the experience of Alzheimer’s disease in a positive way. Hartley & Marks Publishers
  • Kitwood, T. (1997). Dementia reconsidered: The person comes first. Open university press.
  • Koren, M. J. (2010). Person-Centered Care For Nursing Home Residents: The Culture-Change Movement. Health Affairs, 29(2), 312-317.
  • Lemaire Patrick & Leclère Mariel (2014) Strategy selection in Alzheimer patients: A study in arithmetic, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36:5, 507-516,
  • Luppi, E. (2018). Training in non-pharmacological approaches to dementia and Alzheimer. Ricerche Di Pedagogia E Didattica. Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 13(3), 123-152.
  • Murphy, J. and Oliver, T. (2013), The use of Talking Mats to support people with dementia and their carers to make decisions together. Health & Social Care in the Community, 21: 171-180.
  • Pekkala, S. (2004), Semantic Fluency in Mild and Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease. University of Helsinki, Faculty of Behavioural Sciences, Department of Speech Sciences. Doctoral Dissertation
  • Ryan, R. and Deci, E (2000) Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psychologist, 55, 68-78
  • Toseland, R. W., Diehl, M., Freeman, K., Manzanares, T., Naleppa, M., & McCallion, P. (1997). The impact of validation group therapy on nursing home residents with dementia. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 16(1), 31-50.
  • Whitehouse, P. J., & George, D. (2008). The myth of Alzheimer’s: What you aren’t being told about today’s most dreaded diagnosis. Macmillan.

Practical tools:

  • Feil, N. (1991). Validation Therapy. Serving the Elderly (1st ed., pp. 89-116). CRC Press. 10.4324/9781315129181-6
  • Feil, N. (1993). The Validation breakthrough: Simple techniques for communicating with people with “Alzheimer’s-type dementia.” Health Professions Press.

References in French: a proposal

Littérature de référence :

  • Amyot Jean-Jacques (2016), Travailler avec les personnes âgées. Dunod
  • Dujardin Kathy, Lemaire Patrick. (2008) Neuropsychologie du vieillissement normal et pathologique
  • Pörtner Marlis, Zeller Odile (2012). Accompagnement des personnes âgées avec l’approche centrée sur la personne.
  • Talpin Jean-Marc. (2017) Psychologie clinique du vieillissement normal et pathologique. Armand Colin.
  • Adewole Ajadi Michaël. (2020) Maladies neurodégénératives: Les maladies neurodégénératives et leurs effets sur les conditions mentales et physiologiques de l’homme. Sciencia Scripts.

Outils pratiques :

  • Feil Naomi. (2005). Validation: La méthode de Naomi Feil
  • De Klerk Vicly-Rubin, Feil Naomi. Validation, mode d’emploi: La méthode en pratique. Des techniques simples pour communiquer avec les personnes atteintes de maladie d’Alzheimer ou démences apparentées